Monday, July 25, 2022

Scholarly Citation of Digital Resources; Proofing your Site against Link Rot

 In my last posts, here and here, I started to deal with the idea of academic citation to digital resources.  I explained that Elliott's insistence that Pleiades was 'citation-ready' is nothing more than a server rewrite rule.  Such a rewrite rule does nothing for digital citation for the following primary reason:

A digital resource (online) is liable to change or disappear.  If they do this then the result is known as 'link rot'.  Wikipedia is probably our civilization's greatest example of exactly that.

If links do change or disappear then when a user tries to use a link YOU supplied he or she will get a 404 (page-missing) error.  That makes you look bad and seem a lot less reliable.  I gave an example of how link-rot has negatively impacted Peripleo which is Pleiades' flag-ship (if that's the word I want) product.

Is scholarly citation to digital resources even possible?  I admit that it's easier to cite a physical product such as a book or an article because, with few exceptions, they aren't going to disappear if you stop paying the fees.  

In this blog post I'm not going to deal with the citation of digital resources directly.  I'm going to deal with checking to see whether your links (embedded in your database) are still good.  You may not be able to do anything about link rot; that's in someone else's hands.  You can, however, regularly, check to see that your embedded links are still good.  If they're not then you can do something about it.  The real problem with link-rot is that it's an invisible process (invisible to you, that is).  I'm going to present a program that makes that process visible.

// Program chechLink

function checklink($l2ch)                    //    This routine uses cURL to get the headers back
    $ch                 = curl_init();
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_URL, $l2ch);
    curl_setopt($ch, CURLOPT_HEADER, 1);
    curl_setopt($ch , CURLOPT_RETURNTRANSFER, 1);
    $data             = curl_exec($ch);
    $headers     = curl_getinfo($ch);
    return $headers['http_code'];

function  connectToDB()            // You have to write your own DB connect routine

$link = connect();    // connect to the Database

//  The query retrieves the title of the work and the URL  It weeds out JSTOR links because I
// already know that these are 'stable'.
$query = "select Src, Tl, URL from biblio where URL is not null and URL not like '%jstor%';";
$result         = mysqli_query($link,$query);
$lcount = 0;

while($row = $result->fetch_assoc())
$URL                = $row['URL'];  // Get the stored URL for this resource
$Tl                = $row['Tl'];  // Get the Title
$src = $row['Src']; // get my own personal DB code for this title

$check_url_status = checklink($URL);          // Call the checklink routine

echo "$lcount: Title: $Tl for URL: $URL\n URL status is: $check_url_status\n";  // make the URL and Title visible ...

// examine the result:
switch ($check_url_status)
    case 200 : {echo "Success";                              break;}
    case 201 : {echo "Created";                             break;}
    case 202 : {echo "Accepted but not complete"; break;}
    case 203 : {echo "Partial information"; break;}
    case 204 : {echo "No response";                        break;}
    case 301 : {echo "Moved and assigned a new URL.";   break;}
    case 302 : {echo "Resides under a different URL, however, the redirection may be altered on occasion";
  case 400 : {echo "Some kind of error";             break;}
    case 404 : {echo "Not found";                         break;}
default : {break;}

echo "\n\n";      // skip a couple of lines

}         // end of while loop

Here's a trace of what it looks like when executing:

λ Php chlink.php
1: Title: Höhenheiligtümer und Schreine in Palästen und Siedlungen der Altpalastzeit Kretas. Ein Vergleich des rituellen Inventars for URL:
URL status is: 200

2: Title: for URL:
URL status is: 301
Moved and assigned a new URL.

3: Title: 1. Geschichte der wissenschaftlichen Erforschung von Paros. for URL:,+Paros
URL status is: 302
Resides under a different URL, however, the redirection may be altered on occasion

4: Title: for URL:
URL status is: 404
Not found

5: Title: Archeologie au Levant for URL:
URL status is: 200

6: Title: The Warrior Grave at Plassi, Marathon for URL:
URL status is: 200

7: Title: Vlochos: Ruins of a city scattered atop a hill for URL:
URL status is: 200


This program works as follows. It first connects to the Database. Following that it forms a query that retrieves the title (Tl) and the URL from the Biblio table in the database. It skips over JSTOR URLs because those are assumed to be stable. JSTOR provides non-changing stable links which is what I put in my database. This program then falls into a while loop which will process every URL I have in my database (some 1268 by current count); one at a time. It sends each URL to a routine called check link() which uses cURL services to get the headers back in an accessible form. This status goes into the $check_url_status variable. Then the $check_url_status is run through a PHP switch statement. If the value is 200 then it's successful (the URL is good) and no further action is needed. The other 2xx values are rare. The 3xx pair (301,302) usually means that the URL has been changed on the server side but that a rule was left behind about how to find the new resource. These usually do not cause problems. The 400 series means that the link is broken and some other action needs to be taken on your part to find the desired resource or the URL has to be deleted from the database.

Item no. 4 in the trace is like that:

"4: Title: for URL:
URL status is: 404
Not found"

This was an attempt to find a resource hosted on the German Archaeological Society's website (DAI). Whatever it was it has now been moved and it's unretrievable at the present URL. I'm either going to have to find that resource some other way or I'm going to have to delete this URL from my DB.

The other URL checks return a status of 200 which means that they succeeded and no action is needed. You should probably change the lines:

case 200 : {echo "Success"; break;}


case 200 : {break;} // or even remove this altogether

That way you'll only ever see the questionable URLs; this is probably why you are doing this in the first place.

You could modify this routine so that this line:

case 400 : {echo "Some kind of error"; break;}

is rewritten as:

case 400 : { echo "update biblio set URL = null where src = '$src' limit 1;";

This change will cause a string of these SQL 'updates' to be generated which can easily be assembled into a script.

If this utility is used judiciously it should help you to dramatically reduce link rot in your product and make it a more robust scholarly resource.

Friday, July 22, 2022


Where broken links come from: the case of Peripleo

In my last post I suggested that rewrite rules were intended to make it easier for a user to search for an item on a web site.  The general concept looks like this:

Now, given this set-up we can change this (hypothetical) complex link:


the user would just type this on the URL line:


Of course that's not really true is it?  Just one difficulty: how would the user know the specific key (579885) for Athens? 

Rewrite rules are really intended for the convenience of the server-side developer.  In this case I'm talking about Pleiades but, in fact, there are probably millions of web sites (no exaggeration) which make use of rewrite rules for their own convenience.  For example, what  if I were to take my path:


and change the program name to, oh, I don't know, let's say this:


In this case my original rewrite rule would still work.  The outer appearance of my site would not have changed.  If I made more radical changes it would still be o.k. as long as I came up with a new re-write rule.  This new rule should preserve my site's surface appearance to the outside world so that people invoking my site would not have to change their software or database or calling routines or all three.  So the purpose of a rewrite rule is to decouple my site's internal workings from the appearance which it presents to the outside world.

A failure to keep internal reality and outside appearance in synch is illustrated by the failure of all the links to the British Museum on Pleiades' Peripleo project.  When I search for 'kylix' for example I get this display:

The link to the British Museum (red arrow) does not resolve.  When I try it Chrome gives me this message:

"This site can’t be reached"

Now, to be fair, the  problem appears to be on the British Museum's side.  They have changed something in the path to their pictures but have not created a rewrite rule to preserve the previous appearance nor have they let Pleiades know about it.  Because this has never worked in the eight months that I've been trying it I find it curious, although not surprising, that Pleiades/Peripleo doesn't care enough to try to fix it.

After all, in the article I quoted from last time, Tom Elliott has this to say about URL/URIs:

"They’re cool because, if you construct them sensibly and connect them to interesting information and take care of them so they don’t rot into uselessness, they make citation happen." [1]

(emphasis mine)

Next time I want to address the idea of what it means to use digital resources for citation.

  1. Elliott [2018] 45.
Elliott [2018]:  Elliott, Tom, 'The Pleiadic Gaze: Looking at Archaeology from the Perspective of a Digital Gazetteer',  Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World; Classical Archaeology in the Digital Age – The AIAC Presidential Panel 12.1 (51), 43-51.  Kristian Göransson ed., 2018.  Online here.

Wednesday, July 20, 2022

The concept of citation-readiness and Mycenaean Atlas Project

 A URL  is a 'universal resource locator': it refers to a web site, e.g.  A URI is a 'universal resource identifier': it refers to a specific item sheltered under the URL.  So, in the pleiades scheme, 579885 is a URI that refers to Athens.  And the link (URL + URI): is the pointer to 'Athens' in their database and which will be returned by Pleiades.   This is a very friendly form and easy for the user to remember.

The actual address of the Pleiades Athens page would not be friendly at all.  It's more likely to look something like this:


My example here is made-up but Pleiades' genuine locator is going to be very much like it and an awful lot for the user to remember.  Much easier to allow the user to write:


Now, to be clear, form {b} is for the user's convenience.  The server running at pleiades cannot use this string directly.  It has to convert this string into form {a} before the server can task the right resource.  A rewrite rule is what allows the server to do this.  The result is convenience for the user but correctness for the server.  Win-win.

Well, what one group can do another can also.  I created some rewrite rules for so that, if you know the location key for a BA site you can just use that without  remembering the long pathname to the actual program.  So from now on you will be able to type and/or embed a simplified form.  E.g., such as here for the stadium at Argos:


instead of the real full path:


The rewrite rule itself is just this:

RewriteRule  ^(C[0-9]+)$  /MAPC/pkey_report_wparam.php?place=$1  [L,R]

... and the result looks like this:

In one of his foggier statements about Pleiades URLs (he clearly doesn't understand the technology), Tom Elliott has this to say about enhancing citation practice.

“On the world-wide-web, the identifiers necessary for citation should be front-and- center: they are the strings of characters that you put into the location bar of your browser in order to retrieve a web page.  They are the essential magic in a hyperlink.  Their technical name is “Uniform Resource Identifier,” a phrase usually abbreviated with  the acronym URI.  URIs (or yoo-ahr-ees, as they’re sometimes pronounced) are cool.  They’re cool because, if you construct them sensibly and connect them to interesting information and take care of them so they don’t rot into uselessness, they make citation happen.  In throwing off the normalizing tyranny of a single map view to embrace the radical equality of all places, Pleiades was born citation-ready.  Because Sean Gillies and others present at the creation payed attention to emerging best practice and cared about scholarly communication, Pleiades was born citation-ready.”[1]

(I removed Elliott's footnotes 17 and 18).

Elliott suggests that this practice makes pleiades 'citation-ready'.  'Citation-ready' in this sense requires, however, no special 'magic' (the word is Elliott's and it's one which he should avoid) because every server supports rewrite rules that will convert some simple address that you type into the URL box (here into the more complex 'actual' address where that resource resides.  As usual Elliott is erecting a cathedral on a postage stamp - overselling a normal web function.  If all it takes is a rewrite rule to make pleiades 'citation-ready' then is now also 'citation-ready' ...

or something.

But is a simple rewrite-rule enough to create citation-readiness?  I'm not convinced.  We all could benefit from a discussion which tries to clear up the idea of scholarly citation in the context of on-line resources.  Maybe next time.

  1. Elliott [2018] 45-6.
  2. A guide to rewrite rules is here and a handy cheat sheet for regular expressions (RAs) is here.


Elliott [2018]:  Elliott, Tom, 'The Pleiadic Gaze: Looking at Archaeology from the Perspective of a Digital Gazetteer',  Archaeology and Economy in the Ancient World; Classical Archaeology in the Digital Age – The AIAC Presidential Panel 12.1 (51), 43-51.  Kristian Göransson ed., 2018.  Online here.

It seems to me that this paper was actually written at least a decade ago but I can find no earlier reference to it.  Is it just me?  Does anyone else know better?

Sunday, July 10, 2022

Search in the Mycenaean Atlas Project

 The ability to search is a large part of the Mycenaean Atlas.  Our search has changed a great deal over the years and so it's time for a new and detailed description.

All the pages in the M.A.P. have a search box.  It looks like this:

In the M.A.P. search will do three things:

I. Locate a point on the map
II. Return a list of sites which match a search string
III. Return a map which shows sites that match a search string

I. Locate a point on a map.
If you enter a lat/lon pair separated by a comma then Search returns a map with your input location marked by a cross. 
[Map with cross, 37.2, 22.2]

You'll see that this map display also shows a thumbnail map which is zoomed out enough so that you stay oriented about where in the Mediterranean you are.  Your current location is indicated by the tiny red diamond icon at the center.
Your search lat/lon pair can also have degree symbols.  Those will be ignored.  Something like this:

If there are M.A.P. sites or features in the vicinity then those will be shown as well.  Here there happens to be a cult site/icon at the center of the map. These icons are also interactive.  You can mouse  over them or click on them.  If you click on one you'll see and info-box which contains a  link to the full description of the site or feature.

One limitation is that only M.A.P. sites and/or features are shown.  Sites in the other supported DBs like  Pleiades or Topostext are not returned in this simple lat/lon search.

This lat/lon search is highly customizable by  supplying additional arguments.  These (in order!) are as follows:

  • Lat
  • Lon
  • Zoom Level from 2 to 18 (default zoom level is 15)
  • Frame size in decimal degrees from 0.01 to 0.30 (the default is 0.15 decimal degrees)
  • A frame size of 0.01 is 1.11 km. wide.
  • A frame size of 0.30 is 33.4 kilometers wide
  • The default frame size of 0.15 decimal degrees is 16.7 kilometers wide.

You must always supply a lat/lon pair but you can also specify the zoom level, framesize, both, or neither.

  • Just zoom: nn.nn , nn.nn , z[z]
  • Just frame size: nn.nn, nn.nn , , 0.f[f] ----> notice that the comma for the zoom argument is still required.
  • Both: nn.nn , nn.nn , z[z] , 0.f[f]
  • Neither: nn.nn , nn.nn

nn.nn indicates latitude or longitude values; latitude comes first.

z[z] indicates a 1 or 2 digit zoom integer value from 2 through 18

0.f[f] indicates a frame size from 0.01 to 0.3. This includes such values as 0.08, 0.14, 0.25, etc.

Do not enter html tags or special characters.

II. Return a list of sites which match a search string.

If your search string is NOT in the format lat, lon then the software conducts a traditional search.  Here's a search for the string 'Elias'.

If the List radio box is checked then your results will be returned as a list of sites and clickable place keys.  

 Here is the first page of results returned when we search for 'Elias'.

These returned sites are those which, somewhere in their names or detailed descriptions, contain your search string.  The returned list is presented in sections. [In the following list SS stands for 'Search String']

M.A.P. site name.
Find Type Comment
Site Bibliography section title.
The Period section Comment
The site General Note
Feature Name
SS appears in the author name in a bibliography entry
Title or Publisher name of a bibliography entry
Pleiades ID name
Pleiades descriptive label
Topostext site name
deGrauuw's Harbor Name
TrisMegistos Name
Vici.Org Name
D.A.R.E. Name

Each list entry returned gives a link to a detail page for that site, Site Name, String containing the SS (in which the SS appears like this '[SS]' in upper case), and a link to the Digital Atlas which centers the specific matched site.

III. Return a map which shows sites that match a search string

In the Greek-speaking world there are many places which have names based on Hagios Elias.  When I search for 'Elias' by list I get 88 results.  But which is the one I really want?  Perhaps I'm really interested in 'Mar Elias' which is a monastery somewhere in Israel.  If we could see all returned results on a map we could quickly sort out the right one.  We check off the 'Map' radio button and do the search.  The results look like this:

On the map we see that the only 'Elias' in Israel (in all the databases) is the monastery 'Mar Elias' which is in Jerusalem.  It happens that the Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire (DARE) has a detailed record about it which you can access from the 'D' icon.  In the next picture you see the drop-down menu of the several databases.  I have turned them all off except for D.A.R.E.

Wednesday, June 29, 2022

Digital Antiquities Databases; Their Visualization and The Mycenaean Atlas Project Digital Atlas

Several of the common digital antiquities databases have very poor or non-existent visualization tools.  Their focus is showing you individual sites on a map and with precious little other support.  The least satisfactory in this regard is Arthur deGraauw's Harbors project.  Dr. deGraauw is an outstanding expert in the field of harbor research; he freely and generously makes his data available to everyone.  This data is, however, in the form of a spreadsheet (computer types refer to this as a 'flat file') and no map visualization is possible on his site.  The remainder among these various DBs provide a dedicated page for each site along with minimal, mostly useless information about it, but without any larger visualization.  The best user interface among these databases is Vici which provides a visualization map for each site and shows you the context.  I do notice, though, that when I use Vici that there is often no site description or indication of the site's significance.   Here's an example: this shows Neftina on Lemnos which appears to be a quarry although we are not told this:

Vici is actually pretty good and contains nearly everything you want in map visualization.  Vici also  provides context in the form of other near-by sites.  The zoom-level is user controlled and jumping to another site does not require you to go back into outer space before zooming in again.  

Multiple Databases

When research involves the several popular databases dealing with antiquity it necessitates running back and forth from one window to the next and trying to put all this data into context.
There must be a better way.

What do we require when visualizing geographic data from antiquity?  Ideally we should be able to see all the data simultaneously on one map so the databases are inter-comparable.  Is the site coverage around Peristeria in Messenia significantly different between Pleiades and Vici?   To answer this question you need these two DBs on the same map so that they can be compared.  And each site on this combo-map should link back to the dedicated page which contains more info about that one site.  The map itself should be interactive. You should be able to click/tap on it and have it redraw centered on where you've clicked/tapped; restoring the data context at the same time.

 We're talking about a lot of data here.  The M.A.P. Digital Atlas can display abut 100,000 data points.  So when the user looks for one site (Chania on Crete, say) how many surrounding DB sites should be drawn automatically? 

Dumping the entire DB is too much.   It's time consuming.  Most of the DB would not be of concern to the user.  And the program response would take a significant hit.

Showing just the individual site is too little.  (Pleiades is worst in this regard.  P. annoyingly zooms in from outer space for every site search and it never shows any context.) 

Pleiades: Searching for Kydonia.
Phase 1: Outer Space!

Topostext shows the context around a sought-for site but it also forces the user back into outer space in most instances.)

The Mycenaean Atlas Project Digital Atlas chooses a middle way.  What is needed is enough context so that the user can work for an extended period on that specific level (Zoom levels 12-18 in most instances).  The Digital Atlas creates and  populates a frame which is about 1/5 of a degree in lat and lon.  In practice this seems to afford adequate space for investigating the immediate surroundings with little or no detectable drawing time.  When the user clicks/taps on the map it is redrawn with the new frame centered at the click.  The new frame is filled in from whatever data sets the user has chosen.

Part of Lemnos in the Mycenaean Atlas Project Digital Atlas
Features (red F paddles), M.A.P. sites (Bronze Age) in blue and Trismegistos sites are displayed

In any solution all the data sets should be visible.  In practice, even when limited by a frame, this can produce a great deal of confusing data overlay.  The user should, therefore, be able to  pick and choose among the various sets - showing all, or none, or some combination.  One wants to be able to see what Pleiades has covered as opposed to what Vici has covered, for example.  The M.A.P. Digital Atlas features a pull-down menu which allows the user to select as many/few database layers as desired.

The Lemnos map (detail)
Layer Menu visible along with 'spotter' map

In sum, then, the Digital Atlas from the Mycenaean Atlas Project adheres to the following design features:
  1. Supports visualization for the following DBs: DARE, deGraauw's Harbors Project, Mycenaean Atlas Project (with features), Pleiades, Topostext, Trismegistos, VICI
  2. Displays these databases in a frame that is 0.18° 'square'.
  3. Differential selection among the seven data sets
  4. Persistent zoom level (user-controlled zoom) (The user is never catapulted into outer space against his/her will)
  5. User-controlled redraw of the frame by clicking anywhere on the map
  6. Links from each DB icon to the relevant details page (Pleiades, Topostext etc., even deGraauw's Harbors).
  7. User-selectable map sheet backgrounds
The result is a quick and easy way to examine coverage for a place (e.g. Siteia on Crete) among the several databases.

I have said that each icon has links to a site details page.  Pleiades icon to Pleiades site, Topostext icon to Topostext site, etc.  The only exception is Dr. deGraauw's Harbors project.  There are no detail pages on his site for individual harbors and so I created a harbor details page for him.  Those pages faithfully reflect HIS data.  Here's an example:

Sample detail page for Arthur deGraauw's Harbor data.
This is Neftina on Lemnos

Looking at this I see that this page should have a 'spotter' map like the Digital Atlas.  Always something more to do.

Databases aren't just created for random and unstatable purposes.  They are created for reasons.  These reasons take their form in the software that is written to execute over them.  One thing that is absolutely essential is careful thinking about the user interface and visualization.  With awkward or non-existent visualization tools the database is incapable of effectively displaying itself.


Tuesday, May 17, 2022

Achaia-Klauss and environs in the Prehistoric

Achaia has benefitted from much recent scholarship that demonstrates how pervasive Mycenaean culture was during the Late Helladic.  However, enthusiasts, and even scholars, when attempting to learn about Achaia in the Bronze Age, are faced with confusing and unclear maps as well as multiply-named sites that make it difficult to get a clear picture of Mycenaean influence in this time and place.  

It is time for a series of clear blog posts that look at the important sites and which use clear maps for the purpose.  This post is the first in that series.  I have begun with the area covered by the orange rectangle in this next aerial photo.  Let's call this the Achaia-Klauss complex.

C494Koukoura/Achaia  Klauss38.19613321.774009Cemetery
C7531Skondreika38.19430521.778006 Settlement
C500Petroto: Tholos38.19381721.76769Tholos
C7532Hagios Konstantinos Β38.18690821.764875Cem
C5009Hagios Konstantinos Α38.18567421.766758Cem

Many more details about these sites are available at the ID field links.

The region shown in the map is on the western foothills  of Mt. Panakaikos.  In this area the foothills take the form of long ridges orientated primarily NW-SE.  On the NW edges of these ridges, about 5 km.  from the ocean on the WNW and overlooking the plain of Patrai, a series of settlements sprang up in the Middle and Late Helladic.  Mygdalia (C3148) was, perhaps, the earliest of these settlements; its presence is attested as early as MH III.  A tomb associated with it (C7530) was constructed in 'early Mycenaean times'.  A second settlement at Skondreika (C7531) on the hill of Koukoura may have been a later contemporary of Mygdalia.  The owner of this site has refused access to investigators and little is known about it.  In the immediate vicinity there are two known cemeteries.  One is the well-known chamber tomb cemetery (C494) at the eastern edge of the Klauss vineyard.  The other (C500) is of tholos form and located at the west edge of the hill on which sits the Klauss winery.  The first  use of this tomb is given as LH II.

Two additional cemeteries are nearby and it is thought probable that they are associated with C3148 or C7531.  The first of these is Hagios Konstantinos Α (C5009) and the second is Hagios Konstantinos Β (C7532).  Panagiotopoulos suggests that the chamber tombs here were used from LH IIIA to C.

Saturday, May 7, 2022

Where are the Chamber Tombs of Achaea Klauss? (C494)

 For a long time the Mycenaean Atlas has contained a location for the chamber tomb cemetery at the winery in Achaea called 'Achaea Klauss'.  This is C494.  However I have never been entirely certain of this position.  Many archaeologists have worked at Achaea Klauss but they have all been decidedly cagy about exactly where the chamber tombs were located.  For example Papadopoulos says this:

"At the north-west foot of the steep hill Koukoura (east of Eglykas in the neighbourhood of the wine factory Achaea-Klauss and ancient Antheia) is a small field belonging to A.K. Skondras.  Kyparisses excavated twelve chamber tombs - variously called "Klauss", "Antheia", or "Skondras" in the PAE reports - and some others were found plundered."

While I'm sure that 'A.K. Skondras' is a fine and honorable person as well as a credit to the Greek nation it doesn't help us to know that these chamber tombs are on his property unless we're able to visit the land registry in Patras.[1]

A map of the area looks like this: 

In the center is the large vineyard which lies behind the Klauss Winery (the orange roofs in the upper center left).  Pleiades places its marker for the chamber tombs in the center of the field.  Topostext puts its marker on the road just to the S of the winery.  My long-standing marker (C494) which is in the lower center right of this  picture is at the SE corner of the vineyard and in the woods.  Which of these, if any, is correct?

I just recently ran across Paschalidis [2018] and while he and his team are just as cagy about the exact location as all other archaeologists he does let the mask slip just a bit and the result is a much more reliable location for Achaea Klauss.  In that work (Fig. 5 on p. 8) he  publishes the following photograph:

The caption reads "Fig. 5. The vineyard of Achaea Clauss wine factory as it looks from the cemetery site (from southeast)."

Crucially this picture is taken from the chamber tombs.  This photo shows the east front of the Klauss complex, most notable are the two towers on the left.  I reproduced this view in Google Earth in the next picture:

I drew in approximations for the towers along with a yellow line to join the towers along with the east face of the winery.  I then led the red line from the winery face back to the observer.  Let's see where that red line ended up.

In this photo from Google Earth the Klauss winery is in the lower center.  The red line is the axis along which the previous picture was shot.  When we follow that red line from Klauss buildings to the foothills we find the location from which the shot was made.  That looks like this:

On the right-hand side of this picture is the location of the Achaea-Klauss chamber tombs.  Let's blow up the right side and see where the photograph was taken from.

And right at that point there is a large structure.  I don't know that that structure corresponds to the archaeological dig but it is not inconsistent with it.

At any rate I have now moved my point for C494 in the Atlas and I have much more confidence in its new location.


[1] A long-time bugbear of mine.  See this.


Ålin [1962]:  Ålin, Per. Das Ende der mykenischen Fundstätten auf dem griechischen Festland. Carl Bloms Boktryckeri A.-B., Lund, 1962., 'Koukoura', pg. 63.

Åström [1965]:  Åström, Paul. ‘Mycenaean Pottery from the Region of Aigion, with a List of Prehistoric Sites in Achaia’, Opuscula Atheniensia, V, pp. 89-110, C.W.K. Gleerup, Lund, 1965., 'Koukoura.', pg. 104.

Giannopoulos [2008]:  Giannopoulos, T.. Die Letzte Elite der mykenischen Welt: Achaia in mykenischer Zeit und das Phänomen der Kriegerbestattungen im 12.-11. Jahrhundert v. Chr.. Bonn: Habelt. 2008., 'Clauss', pg. 55.


Papadopoulos [1979]:  Papadopoulos, Thanasis J.. Mycenaean Achaea; Part 1: Text. Paul Åströms Förlag, Göteborg, Sweden. 1979. Vol 1., '12. Klauss (Koukoura, Antheia)', pg. 27.

Paschalidis [2018]: Paschalidis Constantinos, The Mycenaean Cemetery at Achaia Clauss near Patras: People, material remains and culture in context.  Archaeolpress Publishing Ltd. 2019.  ISBN: 978-1784919191                   This book retails for more than $100.00 but I was able to read it for free on  Even if you have to pay for this book the price is still only about $22.00 for this e-books version.  Find it here.

Simpson [1981]:  Simpson, Richard Hope. Mycenaean Greece. Park Ridge, New Jersey: Noyes Press, 1981., 'D 29 Koukoura', pg. 90. Online here.

Simpson and Dickinson [1979]:  Simpson, Richard Hope and O.T.P.K. Dickinson. A Gazetteer of Aegean Civilization in the Bronze Age, Vol. I: The Mainland and the Islands. Paul Åströms Förlag, Goteborg. 1979., 'B 44 Koukoura (near the Achaia-Klauss factory)', pg. 87. Online here.